The state remained responsible for banking, transportation, heavy industry and public utilities. Much of this was done according to the Bolshevik first decisions, government documents signed by Vladimir Lenin. One of the most prominent breakthroughs was the GOELRO plan, which envisaged a major restructuring of the Soviet economy based on total electrification of the country. It included the construction of a network of 30 regional power plants, including ten large hydropower plants and many large electrical industrial companies. The plan became the prototype of subsequent five-year plans and was completed in 1931.
In the late 1980s, the country’s budget depended heavily on exports of fossil hydrocarbon fuels. As the oil price fell, the country began to experience difficulties due to the resulting trade and then budget deficits. The threatened economic situation required the Soviet government to implement far-reaching reforms.
After World War II, relations between the USSR and the United States and Great Britain began to deteriorate. The USSR had established communist governments in Eastern European countries, causing Western countries to fear the spread of communism to the rest of the world. In 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed by the allies of the United States. The Soviets responded by consolidating power between the Eastern Bloc countries in 1955 under the Warsaw Pact. In the 1970s, the USSR and the United States negotiated the nuclear arms race and signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT-I) on SALT-II in 1979.
Congress of Deputies of the U.S.S.R. The new congress had 2,250 members; a third of these were elected from constituency, a third represented the political areas and the remaining third came from “all unions” such as the unions, the CPSU and the Academy of Sciences. The Congress of People’s Deputies elected a new Supreme Soviet of 542 members and also elected the president of that body, which would become the executive president of the USSR.
In 2006, Gorbachev named Chernobyl and the resulting media outage the real cause of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The abolition of the items covered by the Treaty would have been completed no later than three years after its entry into force. The Convention provided for the elimination of the medium and shorter-range missiles covered by the Convention at the designated elimination facilities, specified by the MOU.
Gorbachev’s decision to unleash the Soviet yoke in the countries of Eastern Europe created an independent, democratic momentum that led to the collapse of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and then to the overthrow of communist rule throughout Eastern Europe. Bush chose to let the events go organic, careful not to do anything to worship Gorbachev’s position. For years, Soviet leaders insisted that the root causes of conflicts between nationalities of the Soviet Union had been eliminated and that the Soviet Union was made up of a family of nations that lived harmoniously together.
Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania immediately declared their independence, while the other 12 republics continued to discuss new, increasingly loosening Union models. After Lenin’s third battle, a troika consisting of Grigory Zinoviev of the Ukrainian SSR, Lev Kamenev of the Russian SFSR and Joseph Stalin of the Transcaucasian SFSR was created to take the daily leadership of the party and the country and block Trotsky from taking power. Stalin was aware of Lenin’s Testament and acted to keep Lenin isolated for health reasons and to increase his control over the party apparatus. The farmers wanted cash payments for their products and hated to surrender their excess grain to the government as part of its civil war policy. Faced with peasant opposition, Lenin began a strategic withdrawal from war communism known as the new economic policy . The farmers were freed from the wholesale levies of grain and were allowed to sell their surplus products on the open market.
In 1991, the Bush administration reconsidered policy options in light of the growing turmoil within the Soviet Union. The government could continue to support Gorbachev in hopes of preventing disintegration of the Soviet Union. Alternatively, the United States could shift aid to Yeltsin and the leaders of the republics and support controlled restructuring or possible split of the Soviet Union. The last option consisted of providing conditional support to Gorbachev, using aid and assistance in exchange for faster and more radical political and economic reforms. But for all those positive steps on the international stage, Gorbachev’s domestic problems continued to grow.
From 1920, the RSFSR was de facto dominant force over the other republics in political, military, economic and demographic terms. The collapse of Soviet communism led to the disruption of the Soviet Union, undermined by an ideological, political and economic crisis. This in turn caused the destruction of the empire, both cause and effect of the end of communism. Specific organizations of “Soviet federalism” accelerated the implosion of the Soviet Union, despite the primary aim of consolidating it.
As a result, the country experienced a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization that laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and post-war rule in Eastern Europe. Stalin also promoted political paranoia and led the Great Purification to remove his opponents from the Communist Party through the massive arbitrary arrest of many people who were later sent to or sentenced to death to correctional labor camps. The soviet collectibles next two Brezhnev successors, transitional figures with deep roots in their tradition, did not last long. Yuri Andropov was 68 years old and Konstantin Chernenko 72 when they took power; both died in less than two years. In an effort to avoid a third short-lived leader, the Soviets turned to the next generation in 1985 and selected Mikhail Gorbachev. He made significant changes to the economy and party leadership called perestroika.